Cancer mortality worldwide highlights the urgency for advanced therapeutic methods to fill the gaps in conventional cancer therapies. Bacteriotherapy is showing great potential in tumor regression due to the motility and colonization tendencies of bacteria. However, the complicated in vivo environment and tumor pathogenesis hamper the therapeutic outcomes. Synthetic engineering methods endow bacteria with flexible abilities both at the extracellular and intracellular levels to meet treatment requirements. In this review, we introduce synthetic engineering methods for bacterial modifications. We highlight the recent progress in engineered bacteria and explore how these synthetic methods endow bacteria with superior abilities in cancer therapy. The current clinical translations are further discussed. Overall, this review may shed light on the advancement of engineered bacteria for cancer therapy.