Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an immunosuppressive M2 phenotype and lead to failure of antitumor therapy. Infiltrated erythrocytes during hemorrhage have been recognized as a promising strategy for polarizing TAMs. However, novel materials that precisely induce tumor hemorrhage without affecting normal coagulation still face challenges. Here, tumor-targeting bacteria (flhDC VNP) are genetically constructed to realize precise tumor hemorrhage. flhDC VNP colonize the tumor and overexpress flagella during proliferation. The flagella promote the expression of TNFα, which induces local tumor hemorrhage. Infiltrated erythrocytes during the hemorrhage temporarily polarize macrophages to M1 subtype. In the presence of artesunate, this short-lived polarization is transformed into a sustained polarization because artesunate and heme form a complex which continuously produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the flagella of active tumor-targeting bacteria may open up new strategies for reprogramming TAMs and improving antitumor therapy.
The article was published in Advanced Materials (IF=29.4; DOI: 10.1002/adma.202303357). This work was supported by a grant from the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and National Natural Science Foundation of China.